Reference Library

Potential cause: Organic Acids

Elevated Organic Acid Concentrations: Filamentous bulking from many recognized filamentous bacteria morphotypes is correlated with elevated concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids. Generally, >80 mg/L of volatile acids is a recognized cause for selection of these filaments. Organic acids may be naturally occurring in many industrial wastes and septage or may be formed in areas of septicity/fermentation (i.e., collection systems, lift stations, eq basins, primary clarifiers).

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Filament Type 0581

Diameter:
.5-.8 µm
Dimensions
Shape:
N/A
Septa:
Usually not visible
Sulfur Granules:
No
Sheath:
No
Branching:
No

Description

Looks like Microthix but gram positive.

Filament Type 0211 Morphotype

Diameter:
.3-.4 µm
Dimensions
.4 x .6 µm
Shape:
OvalsRods
Septa:
Yes usually visible
Sulfur Granules:
No
Sheath:
No
Branching:
No

Description

Grows dispersed. “Thin and crooked”.

Filament Type 0092

Diameter:
0.6-1.2 µm
Dimensions
.8-1.0 x 1.0
type 0092 cropped from 1000x Neisser
type 0092 cropped from 1000x Neisser
Shape:
Rectangles
Septa:
Yes - Sometimes but not always Visible
Sulfur Granules:
No
Sheath:
Variable
Branching:
Variable

Description

Neisser positive. Need Neisser stain to ID. Often difficult to see at phase contrast. Common to not see individual cells.

Filament Type 0961

Diameter:
1.0-1.4 µm
Dimensions
1.0-1.4 x 2.0-4.0 µm
Shape:
SausageRods
Septa:
Yes - visible
Sulfur Granules:
No
Sheath:
No - not a true sheath
Branching:
No - not a true sheath

Description

Transparent/ "lighter" appearance.

Filament Type 0411 Morphotype

Diameter:
.8-1.2 µm
Dimensions
.8-1.2 x 2.0-5.0 µm
type 0411 cropped from 1000x phase contrast
type 0411 cropped from 1000x phase contrast
Shape:
SausageRods
Septa:
Yes - visible
Sulfur Granules:
No
Sheath:
No
Branching:
No

Description

"Elongated rods/ long sausage links"

Nostocoida Limicola III filament morphotype

Diameter:
1.7-2.5 µm
Dimensions
2.0 x 1.5 µm
Nostocoida limicola III cropped from 1000x Neisser
Nostocoida limicola III cropped from 1000x Neisser
Shape:
OvalsDiscs
Septa:
Yes - visible
Sulfur Granules:
No
Sheath:
No
Branching:
No

Description

Individual discoid cells.

Nostocoida limicola (I and II) filament morphotype

Diameter:
0.8-2.0 µm
Dimensions
0.8 x 1.0-1.5 µm
Nostocoida limicola cropped from 1000x DIC
Nostocoida limicola cropped from 1000x DIC
Shape:
OvalsDiscs
Septa:
Yes - visible
Sulfur Granules:
No
Sheath:
No
Branching:
No

Description

Has the appearance of "hockey pucks".

Beggiatoa filament morphotypes

Diameter:
2.0- 4.0 µm
Dimensions
2.0-4.0 x 6.0 -8.0 µm
Shape:
Rectangles
Septa:
Sometimes you can see septa
Sulfur Granules:
Yes - potential for sulfur granules
Sheath:
No
Branching:
No

Description

Typically motile and usually contains either sulfur granules or PHB granules.

Type 0914/0803 filament morphotype

Diameter:
1.0-1.2 µm
Dimensions
1.0 x 1.0 µm
type 0914_0803 cropped from 1000x phase contrast
type 0914_0803 cropped from 1000x phase contrast
Shape:
Square
Septa:
Yes - usually visible
Sulfur Granules:
Yes - potential for sulfur granules
Sheath:
Yes
Branching:
Yes

Description

Occasionally has square sulfur granules.

Thiothrix Filament Morphotype

Diameter:
0.8- 2.8 µm
Dimensions
.8-1.4 x1.0-3.0 µm
Thiothrix cropped from 1000x phase contrast
Thiothrix cropped from 1000x phase contrast
Shape:
Rectangles
Septa:
Yes - visible
Sulfur Granules:
Yes - potential for sulfur granules
Sheath:
Yes
Branching:
Yes

Description

Regular cell shape, typically extends from flocs. Has the potential for sulfur granules.

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